Andean Region The Andes mountains form the most populous region of Colombia and contain the majority of the country's urban centres. They were also the location of the most significant pre-Columbian indigenous settlement. Beyond the Colombian Massif in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño, the Colombian Andes divide into three branches known as cordilleras (from the Spanish for rope): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running up the centre of the country between the Cauca amazonas river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales and Pereira; and the Cordillera Occidental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula, and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.
In the city Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C.(during the time of Spanish rule, and also from 1991 to 2000, called Santa Fé de Bogotá) is the capital and largest city of Colombia administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia. It is the political, economic, administrative, industrial, artistic, cultural, and sports center of the country.
Surroundings Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Spanish: Municipio de Medellín, is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in the Aburrá Valley, a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the city has an estimated population of 2.44 million as of 2014.With its surrounding area that includes nine other cities, the metropolitan area of Medellín is the second-largest urban agglomeration in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.7 million people.
The Colombian Massif (from the Spanish Macizo Colombiano), also known colloquially as Nudo de Almaguer, refers to a group of mountains within the Andes of south central Colombia. The massif is mainly within the area of the Cauca, Huila, and Nariño Departments. To the south is the Pasto Massif (Nudo de los Pastos) and to the north begins the Central and Eastern Andes.